beijing optics

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Aspheric surfaces

Remove term: Aspheric shape design guide Aspheric shape design guide

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Aspheric surfaces Introduction Aspheric lenses have become synonymous with high-performance optics. They are used in an optical design to correct aperture dependent aberrations (spherical aberration), to correct field dependent aberrations (distortion and field curvature), to reduce weight, to make optical systems more compact, and in some cases to reduce cost. […]

Hypersonic Flight Effects on Optical Sensors

Hypersonic Flight Effects on Optical Sensors

Hypersonic Flight Effects on Optical Sensors Background: In recent years hypersonic vehicles have received a lot of attention from the media. NASA and various military contractors are spending a lot of time and money investigating the potential for hypersonic flight. Applications include Space Shuttles, high speed aircraft and guided missiles. In order for these vehicles […]

Tutorial on ISO 10110 Optical Drawing Standard

Tutorial on ISO 10110 Optical Drawing Standard

Tutorial on ISO 10110 Optical Drawing Standard Introduction Specifying optical components is a vital method for the optical designer to relay to the optician exactly what is expected to be produced. Without a standard method for describing the details of the part, there is no guarantee that the designer will end up with a part […]

Materials for UV Optics: Selection and Applications.

Selection of Materials for UV Optics

Selection of Materials for UV Optics Abstract Ultraviolet technology is seeing an increase in demand with many industries needing the ability to use non-x-ray short wavelengths. Key industries include lithography where writing smaller traces is the key to staying viable. When considering the design of ultraviolet optics, the materials available are far fewer than for […]

Difficulties associated with UV and IR optics

Difficulties associated with UV and IR optics

Difficulties associated with UV and IR optics Introduction Design and fabrication using UV and IR optics requires consideration of optical materials, surface finish, mechanical and optical fabrication techniques, housing and mounting methods, alignment and test, and cost. These same considerations are addressed when designing and fabricating visible optics, but the magnitude of the problems differ […]

Beryllium: Versatile metal with unique properties.

Beryllium: Properties and Applications

Beryllium: Properties and Applications Introduction Beryllium is a lightweight, stiff, high thermal conductivity material which is useful in many opto-mechanical applications. Much work has been done to achieve high purity, isotropic beryllium blanks and foils. It can be challenging to work with as it can be very brittle, difficult to machine and is toxic to […]

Black coatings enhance optical performance.

Black Coatings to Reduce Stray Light

Black Coatings to Reduce Stray Light Introduction This report is a tutorial on the use of black coatings to reduce stray light. An optical system that is designed to produce an image of an object or scene is limited by three main aspects. The first is the quality of the image that the optics can […]

Zerodur: A Low Thermal Expansion Material

Zerodur

Zerodur Introduction Zerodur is the trade name of a low thermal expansion glass-ceramic composite material made by Schott Glass. This report summarizes the chemical, physical and optical properties of Zerodur and discusses the applications for which this material is suited. History Borosilicate glasses α ~ 3 ppm/°C were developed in the late 1800s. These glasses […]

Choices of adhesives—general introduction to structure adhesives

Choices of adhesives—general introduction to structure adhesives

Choices of adhesives—general introduction to structure adhesives Abstract This tutorial report focus on the choices of adhesives. The most common type of adhesives, characteristics of each type are introduced. The basic procedure for polymer adhesives as well as the corresponded mechanical properties and test methods are introduced. Introduction As we all know, the basic function […]

Choosing vibration isolators for optimal performance.

Tutorial Selection of vibration isolators

Tutorial Selection of vibration isolators Abstract Controlling or isolating vibration caused by a ground motion or an acoustic noise is critically important in precise optical fabrications and measurements. There are two methods for controlling or isolating vibration, passive and active vibration isolation. The goal here is to compare passive and active vibration isolation and examine […]

Optical glass: Testing and design considerations.

Chemical properties of optical glass: Test procedures, and considerations for design and assembly

Chemical properties of optical glass: Test procedures, and considerations for design and assembly Abstract This paper will summarize the considerations of chemical stability of optical glasses, with an emphasis on design considerations relevant to common optomechanical systems. It will consider the categorization of chemical stability into climatic (water) resistance, stain resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance, […]

An Introduction to Optical Window Design

An Introduction to Optical Window Design

An Introduction to Optical Window Design  Abstract The purpose of this paper is to give the practicing engineer a practical introduction to the area of optical window design. Several design considerations and typical specifications for optical windows and their mounting are discussed. Several examples taken from literature are referenced and used to illustrate modern optical […]

Designing high power single frequency fiber lasers

Designing high power single frequency fiber lasers

Designing high power single frequency fiber lasers Single frequency lasers with narrow linewidth have long coherence length and this is an essential property for many applications in industry and science. One of the applications is remote laser sensing and in particularly laser guide star, where high power narrow linewidth laser at 589nm is required for […]

An Introduction to the Optics Manufacturing Process

An Introduction to the Optics Manufacturing Process

An Introduction to the Optics Manufacturing Process Abstract Although technological advances are continually being made in machinery for optics manufacturing, the actual manufacturing process has, in many ways, remained unchanged. This paper serves as a basic overview of how a lens is manufactured from a blank. A lens is typically ordered from a glass company […]

Specifying Scratch/Dig of an Optical Surface MIL-0-13830

Specifying Scratch/Dig of an Optical Surface MIL-0-13830

Specifying Scratch/Dig of an Optical Surface MIL-0-13830 The designation of surface will be given in the form of two numbers, i.e. 60-40. The first number specifies the maximum width of scratches on the surface in tenths of a micron. #80 Max width equals 8 microns#60 Max width equals 6 microns#40 Max width equals 4 microns#20 […]

First Order Optics

First Order Optics

First Order Optics 1. INTRODUCTION First order optics are the principles and equations which describe the geometrical imaging of any optical system. The foundations of first order optics are derived from the concept of central projection, collinear transformation and the camera obscura. These foundations will be used to demonstrate the fundamental parameters of an optical […]

Electro-Optical Environmental Considerations

Electro-Optical Environmental Considerations

Electro-Optical Environmental Considerations Introduction In the requirement development, design, and system development the majority of attention is paid to the mechanical, electrical and optical components and assemblies of Electro-Optical systems. In many cases the intended operating environment is overlooked or the requirement implication misunderstood. This paper will look at a few of the more common […]

Methods for measuring a lens focal length

Methods for measuring a lens focal length

Methods for measuring a lens focal length Introduction The focal length is one of the most important parameter of a lens. Sometimes the focal length is slightly different from the datasheet value given by the manufacturer, having an impact on the predicted optical system performances. Many methods have been elaborated to measure with more or […]

Telecentric Lens Tutorial: Precise Imaging.

Tutorial of Telecentric Lens

Tutorial of Telecentric Lens Introduction Nowadays, high accuracy and performance of critical to many machine vision system, a method that use telecentric lens allows highest possible accuracy to be obtained. This tutorial introduced the concept and set up for the object-space telecenric system and image-space telecentric system and advantages of telecentric lens that can impact […]

Enhancing aluminum with coatings and treatments.

Coatings and Treatments for Aluminum

Coatings and Treatments for Aluminum Introduction Aluminum is a very common material used for structural components due to it being fairly inexpensive to procure and machine. If these structural components must maintain their integrity in some adverse environments, the aluminum must be treated to avoid degradation of performance and/or appearance. Since it is also relatively […]

Selection of Optical Adhesives Andrew Clements

Selection of Optical Adhesives Andrew Clements

Selection of Optical Adhesives Andrew Clements Abstract This paper presents an overview of the issues involved with selection of an optomechanical adhesive.  It proposes a very general approach by which selection of optomechanical adhesives may be considered.  It gives a brief historical overview of the major developments in the field of optical adhesives.  It discusses […]

Analyzing optical systems with MTF testing.

Tutorial Modulation Transfer Function Testing of Optomechanical Systems

Modulation Transfer Function Testing of Optomechanical Systems Abstract Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) testing is a fairly universal test of optomechanical system performance. All optomechanical systems are tested to verify their resolution performance. For many systems, this testing is the best way to quantify that the system is performing as it is required to. MTF testing […]

Silicon Carbide mirrors: Lightweight with exceptional properties.

Lightweighted telescope mirrors: Outstanding properties of Silicon Carbide

Lightweighted telescope mirrors: Outstanding properties of Silicon Carbide Introduction: Nowadays, the willingness to always go further in the exploration of the Space and its celestial bodies requires the observation instruments sent in the Space to continuously improve their performances. Thus, the optics needs to get bigger to achieve higher spatial resolution, accuracy or light flux […]

Birefringence Precision Measurement and Reduction Tutorial

Birefringence Precision Measurement and Reduction Tutorial

Birefringence Precision Measurement and Reduction Tutorial High precision optical instruments used in industrial applications require control of many variables in order to maintain precise measurements. All of the optical components in a precision system must be controlled. One of the most important parameters to control in many applications is residual linear birefringence due to a […]

CodeV: Precise tolerance for optimal results.

Tolerancing in CodeV

Tolerancing in CodeV Abstract The allocation of fabrication and assembly tolerance for optical components is a task that is on completely equal footing with optimization.  When building an optical system, it is extremely crucial to ensure that the system meets the performance specification through tolerance analysis. For each optical component within the system, proper tolerances […]

Practical guide to using composites in optics.

Tutorial: Applied Use of Composites in Optical Systems

Tutorial: Applied Use of Composites in Optical Systems Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief discussion of the applied use of composites in optical systems. This paper is meant for the interested reader in design of optical elements and support structures, and how composites may be used in both scenarios. First, […]

Guide to mounting optical lenses efficiently.

Tutorial: Applied Use of Composites in Optical Systems

Tutorial: Mounting Optical Lens 1- Introduction An assembly of lens is hold usually in a lens barrel. Each lens is fixed in this barrel by a mounting structure. An example of a lens barrel is shown in Figure 1. The following criteria should be met by a lens mount: 1– It should define the position […]

Thermal modeling in Zemax: A concise guide.

Tutorial: Thermal Modeling in Zemax

Tutorial: Thermal Modeling in Zemax 1.Introduction Frequently an optical system must perform adequately over a range of temperatures; the Zemax multi-configuration tool offers a convenient means of analyzing optical performance for this situation. This tutorial presents a brief review of an analytical approach to thermal-optical analysis presented in Opti521 lectures, and then shows in detail […]

Tutorial on improving optical system performance.

Tutorial on Strehl ratio, wavefront power series expansion, Zernike polynomials expansion in small aberrated optical systems

Tutorial on Strehl ratio, wavefront power series expansion, Zernike polynomials expansion in small aberrated optical systems 1. Strehl Ratio The wave aberration function, W(x,y), is defined as the distance, in optical path length (product of the refractive index and path length), from the reference sphere to the wavefront in the exit pupil measured along the […]

Measuring focal length of optical element.

Methods of measuring the focal length of the optical element

Methods of measuring the focal length of the optical element Introduction Focal length of optical elements is an essential parameter to optical engineers. In many applications, we need to get this parameter first then continue the following work. However, this parameter is not always known in advance or given in wrong value. In this situation, […]

Opti 521/421 Tutorial for Plastic Optical Materials

Opti 521/421 Tutorial for Plastic Optical Materials

Opti 521/421 Tutorial for Plastic Optical Materials 1. Introduction Plastics optical materials have plenty of applications in consumer products. The main reason for the use of plastic optics is cost. The other benefits from using plastic optical materials are production volume, integral features, weight reduction, and aspheric or diffractive surfaces. Though these polymers have issues […]

SolidWorks: Designing a Security Camera.

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOLIDWORKS: MODELING A COMPACT SECURITY CAMERA

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOLIDWORKS: MODELING A COMPACT SECURITY CAMERA Abstract The following tutorial is a step by step guide to creating a simple 3D model using the SolidWorks solid modeling software.  As a tie in to optical science, the component being modeled is a Watec 902H2 Ultimate compact security camera.  The final model is completed […]

Tutorial on improving optical system performance.

Tutorial on Strehl ratio

Tutorial on Strehl ratio, wavefront power series expansion, Zernike polynomials expansion in small aberrated optical systems 1. Strehl Ratio The wave aberration function, W(x,y), is defined as the distance, in optical path length (product of the refractive index and path length), from the reference sphere to the wavefront in the exit pupil measured along the […]

Passive Athermalization of an Infrared Optical System

Passive Athermalization of an Infrared Optical System

Passive Athermalization of an Infrared Optical System Introduction This tutorial will cover the design of an athermal lens mount for an infrared double-Gauss objective. This objective will need to be able to survive a space environment. It will experience large temperature changes and needs to remain in focus so imaging can occur continuously. The lens […]

Optical windows: key components for optics.

An introduction to optical windows

An introduction to optical windows  ABSTRACT This paper provides and introduction to optical windows. Several aspects of window design are discussed and simple equations to calculate window deformation effects are provided. Several materials that can be used for window substrates are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The coating of windows is briefly […]

An introduction to off-axis parabolic mirrors

An introduction to off-axis parabolic mirrors Abstract Off-axis parabolic mirrors (OAPs) can be a useful tool in optical design. OAPs combine the achromatic and diffraction limited imaging properties of a parabolic mirror with the ability to deviate the light path off-axis, which is useful for most imaging systems. However, when used improperly, OAPs can be […]

Mounting optics securely in protective cells.

Potting Optical Elements in Cells

Potting Optical Elements in Cells Introduction Potting optical elements into mechanical cells can ease the manufacturing process for most optical systems. Potting is defined as the process of filling in the space between an optic and its mount with a compliant material that offers resistance to shock, vibration and temperature change. Optical elements are typically […]

Choosing image quality metrics for better results.

Image Quality Criteria –Which Metric Should I Use?

Image Quality Criteria –Which Metric Should I Use? Introduction Image quality criteria define the expected imaging performance of an optical system.  It may also be described as the set of requirements that characterizes how well the imaging system works.  It is imperative to have image quality criteria when designing an optical imaging system, this is […]

Methods for measuring a lens focal length

Methods for measuring a lens focal length

What is an Integrated Detector Assembly? Why are they used? Integrated Detector Assemblies are used to cool optical detectors In comparison with uncooled detectors, Cooled detectors have higher quantum efficiencies, operate at much faster speed of detection (frame rates) and are significantly more sensitive The amount of cooling necessary for operation is based upon the […]

Front and side view videoscope lens design.

Front view and panoramic side view videoscope lens system design

Front view and panoramic side view videoscope lens system design 1. Introduction A typical endoscope, either for industrial or medical purpose, is conventionally the front viewing type, which have a limited view angle. There are several designs that can achieve wide field of view, such as fish-eye lens, panoramic reflector, panoramic annular lens (PAL), multi […]

Invar: Properties and applications overview.

An Introduction to Invar

An Introduction to Invar Summary This paper is intended to serve as an introduction to Invar for an audience of opto-mechanical engineers.  I wrote this paper as part of a class in opto-mechanical engineering taught by Professor James Burge at the University of Arizona.  A major motivation for writing this paper was to educate myself […]

Precision control of optical systems. (Part2)

Tolerancing in ZEMAX 2

Tolerancing in ZEMAX Abstract Tolerancing is a very useful skill to have as an optical engineer. If an optical system is to be built, a tolerance analysis must be performed to ensure that the system will meet the performance specifications. Tolerances should be specified for any parameters in a system that might vary by some […]

Assessing image sharpness with MTF.

How to Measure MTF

How to Measure MTF Introduction With the growing role played by optical devices in measurement, communication, and photonics, there is a clear need for characterizing optical components. A basic and useful parameter, especially for imaging systems, is the Modulation Transfer Function, or MTF. Over the past few decades technological advances, including the laser interferometer, high-speed […]

Precision control of optical systems. (Part1)

Tolerancing in Zemax 1

Tolerancing in Zemax Introduction Being able to design a good optical system is important as an optical engineer, but equally as important is being able to tolerance it. Without this skill it is near impossible to bring any theoretical system that you have designed to reality. For simple systems consisting of perhaps one or two […]

Selecting materials for long wave IR applications.

Choosing Optical Materials for Long Wave Infrared (8-12μm) Applications

Choosing Optical Materials for Long Wave Infrared (8-12μm) Applications Introduction Imaging in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region, also referred to as the thermal infrared, has many useful applications in the military, security, construction, and scientific fields.  Long-wave infrared imaging systems cover the 8-12 μm wavelength band, which is dominated by thermal emission from target […]